New Technologies and Innovative Solutions in the Development Strategies of Energy Enterprises

Piotr F. Borowski


Energy companies face challenges arising from the ecological, social and legal environment. The reduction of negative impact on the environment and society while maintaining sustainable development affects the formation of new development strategies and push to introduce the state of art innovative technologies. The main aim of the research is to analyze the importance and role of the adaptation strategy to external requirements and to determine the mechanisms of the occurrence of passive and active adaptation. As a new approach to carrying out strategic analysis, two models were used simultaneously (inductive and hypothetical-deductive) which allows for realization qualitative (interviews, observations) and quantitative (statistical analysis) research methods generally called mixed methods. The study was conducted on the basis of mixed-method analysis of adaptations strategies of enterprises from the energy sector. The results of the conducted research show the influence of particular macroeconomic elements (e.g. technologies, ecologies) on making strategic decisions. The issue of adapting an enterprise to its environment is also related to its involvement in the research and development (R&D) sphere. Depending on the size of the company there are different amounts dedicated to R&D. Regulations and the technological environment force innovations of energy companies in the direction of reducing harmful impact on the environment and society. Legal and political factors (both national and EU) determine the activities of power companies (in each group: small, medium and large) and determine the choice of adaptation strategies. The intensity of adaptation to the requirements of the environment changes depends on the size of the company. Power companies apply passive adaptation strategies and as they increase their position on the market, they begin to implement an active adaptation strategy.


Strategic Management; Adaptation Strategy; Energy Sector; Quantity Methods; Quality Methods; Induction Methods; Hypothetic-deduction Methods; Society; Sustainability.


Uriona-Maldonado, M., de Souza, L.L.C. & Varvakis, G. (2010). Focus on practice service process innovation in the Brazilian electric energy sector. Serv Bus 4, 77–88. doi:10.1007/s11628-009-0080-8.

Borowski, P. F. (2015). Ryzyko strategiczne w rozwoju przedsiębiorstw w XXI w.-studium przypadku. Przegląd Organizacji, (2), 14-20.

Wellum, C. (2020). Energizing Finance: The Energy Crisis, Oil Futures, and Neoliberal Narratives. Enterprise & Society, 21(1), 2-37. doi:10.1017/eso.2019.26.

Eoyang, G. H., & Holladay, R. J. (2013). Adaptive action: Leveraging uncertainty in your organization. Stanford University Press.

Conteh, C., Greitens, T. J., Jesuit, D. K., & Roberge, I. (Eds.). (2014). Governance and public management: Strategic foundations for volatile times. Routledge.

Samsami, F., Hosseini, S. H. K., Kordnaeij, A., & Azar, A. (2015). Managing environmental uncertainty: from conceptual review to strategic management point of view. International journal of business and management, 10(7), 215.

Thrän, D., Dotzauer, M., Lenz, V., Liebetrau, J., & Ortwein, A. (2015). Flexible bioenergy supply for balancing fluctuating renewables in the heat and power sector—a review of technologies and concepts. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 5(1). doi:10.1186/s13705-015-0062-8.

Thrän, D., (2018). Being a woman in engineering,

Cuervo, Á., Ribeiro, D., & Roig, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship: concepts, theory and perspective. Introduction. In Entrepreneurship (pp. 1-20). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Buchheim, L., Krieger, A., & Arndt, S. (2019). Innovation types in public sector organizations: a systematic review of the literature. Management Review Quarterly. doi:10.1007/s11301-019-00174-5.

De Vries, H., Tummers, L., & Bekkers, V. (2018). The diffusion and adoption of public sector innovations: A meta-synthesis of the literature. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance, 1(3), 159-176. doi:10.1093/ppmgov/gvy001.

Pertuz, V., & Pérez, A. (2020). Innovation management practices: review and guidance for future research in SMEs. Management Review Quarterly. doi:10.1007/s11301-020-00183-9.

Ban, N. C., Mills, M., Tam, J., Hicks, C. C., Klain, S., Stoeckl, N., … Chan, K. M. (2013). A social–ecological approach to conservation planning: embedding social considerations. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(4), 194–202. doi:10.1890/110205

Adger, W. N., Benjaminsen, T. A., Brown, K., & Svarstad, H. (2001). Advancing a Political Ecology of Global Environmental Discourses. Development and Change, 32(4), 681–715. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00222.

Briassoulis, H. (Ed.). (2017). Policy integration for complex environmental problems: The example of Mediterranean desertification. Taylor & Francis.

Cairney, P., McHarg, A., McEwen, N., & Turner, K. (2019). How to conceptualise energy law and policy for an interdisciplinary audience: The case of post-Brexit UK. Energ policy, 129, 459-466. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2019.02.022.

Bekun, F. V., Alola, A. A., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2019). Toward a sustainable environment: Nexus between CO2 emissions, resource rent, renewable and nonrenewable energy in 16-EU countries. Science of the Total Environment, 657, 1023–1029. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.104.

Bahrami, H., & Evans, S. (2014). Super-flexibility for knowledge enterprises: a toolkit for dynamic adaptation. Springer.

Gasbarro, F., Rizzi, F., & Frey, M. (2016). Adaptation measures of energy and utility companies to cope with water scarcity induced by climate change. Business Strategy and the Environment, 25(1), 54-72. doi:10.1002/bse.1857.

Ebinger, J., & Vergara, W. (2011). Climate Impacts on Energy Systems. doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-8697.

Shen, J., Jiang, C., Liu, Y., & Wang, X. (2016). A Microgrid Energy Management System and Risk Management under an Electricity Market Environment. IEEE Access, 4, 2349–2356. doi:10.1109/access.2016.2555926.

Pereira, G. I., Specht, J. M., Silva, P. P., & Madlener, R. (2018). Technology, business model, and market design adaptation toward smart electricity distribution: Insights for policy making. Energy Policy, 121, 426-440. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.06.018.

Wojdalski, J., Dróżdż, B., Grochowicz, J., Magryś, A., Ekielski, A. (2013). Assessment of energy consumption in a meat-processing plant—a case study. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(10), 2621-2629. doi:10.1007/s11947-012-0924-4.

Bickel, M. W. (2019). Reflecting trends in the academic landscape of sustainable energy using probabilistic topic modeling. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 9(1), 1-23. doi:10.1186/s13705-019-0226-z.

Jenkins, A. (2015). Dieter Helm. Energy, the State, and the Market: British Energy Policy since 1979. Oxford, UK, Enterprise & Society, 5(4), 708-710. doi:10.1017/S1467222700014117.

Jones, C. (2015). The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions. Enterprise & Society, 12(4), 790-823. doi:10.1017/S1467222700010685.

Sarbu, I., & Sebarchievici, C. A. (2018). A Comprehensive Review of Thermal Energy Storage. Sustainability, 10(2), 191. doi:10.3390/su10010191.

Appiah-Adu, K., & Bawumia, M. (2016). Key determinants of national development: historical perspectives and implications for developing economies. Routledge.

Borowski, P. F. (2016). Development Strategies for Electric Utilities. Acta Energetica, 4(29), 16–21. doi:10.12736/issn.2300-3022.2016402.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Collins, K. M. (2007). A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research. Qualitative Report, 12(2), 281-316.

Bazeley, P. (2015). Mixed methods in management research: Implications for the field. electronic Journal of Business research Methods, 27-35.

Van der Roest, J.-W., Spaaij, R., & van Bottenburg, M. (2013). Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 9(1), 70–90. doi:10.1177/1558689813508225.

Najda-Janoszka, M., & Daba-Buzoianu, C. (2018). Editorial paper: exploring management through qualitative research: introductory remarks. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 14(4).

Butterfield, K. D., Reed, R., & Lemak, D. J. (2004). An Inductive Model of Collaboration from the Stakeholder’s Perspective. Business & Society, 43(2), 162–195. doi:10.1177/0007650304265956.

Jeszka, A. M. (2013). Problemy badawcze i hipotezy w naukach o zarządzaniu. Organization and Management, 5 (158), 31-39.

Mroczko, F. (2014). Jakościowe metody badań: obserwacja naukowa. Prace Naukowe Wałbrzyskiej Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Przedsiębiorczości, 26, 65-78.

Shank, G. D. (2002). Qualitative research: A personal skills approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Keusch, F. (2015). Why do people participate in Web surveys? Applying survey participation theory to Internet survey data collection. Management Review Quarterly, 65(3), 183–216. doi:10.1007/s11301-014-0111-y.

Lawson, A. E. (2005). What is the role of induction and deduction in reasoning and scientific inquiry? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(6), 716–740. doi:10.1002/tea.20067.

Bendassolli, P. F. (2013). Theory building in qualitative research: Reconsidering the problem of induction. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 14, No. 1). doi:10.17169/fqs-14.1.1851

Stenbacka, C. (2001). Qualitative research requires quality concepts of its own. Management Decision, 39(7), 551-556.

Qu, S. Q., & Dumay, J. (2011). The qualitative research interview. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 8(3), 238–264. doi:10.1108/11766091111162070.

Chalikias, M., Lalou, P., & Skordoulis, M. (2019). Customer Exposure to Sellers, Probabilistic Optimization and Profit Research. Mathematics, 7(7), 621. doi:10.3390/math7070621.

Guiasu S, 2009. Probabilistic models in operations research, New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Hyde, K. F. (2000). Recognising deductive processes in qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(2), 82–90. doi:10.1108/13522750010322089.

Dźwigoł, H., & Dźwigoł-Barosz, M. (2018). Scientific research methodology in management sciences. Financial and credit activity: problems of theory and practice, 2(25), 424-437.

McKinley, W., & Mone, M. A. (2005). Micro and Macro Perspectives in Organization Theory: A Tale of Incommensurability. Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199275250.003.0013.

Law J. (2009), A Dictionary of Business and Management (5 ed.) Oxford University Press.

Patuk, I., & Borowski, P. F. (2017). Business plan of the company of repair and maintenance outboards and boats–“Technoservice”. World Scientific News, 86(3), 193-204.

Shilei, L., & Yong, W. (2009). Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region. Energy Policy, 37(6), 2098-2101. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.11.039.

Song, J., Sun, Y., & Jin, L. (2017). PESTEL analysis of the development of the waste-to-energy incineration industry in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, 276-289. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.066.

Yüksel, I. (2012). Developing a multi-criteria decision making model for PESTEL analysis. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(24), 52. doi:10.5539/ijbm.v7n24p52.

Borowski, P. F. (2019). Adaptation strategy on regulated markets of power companies in Poland. Energy & Environment, 30(1), 3-26. doi:10.1177/0958305X18787292.

Gao, F., Li, M., & Nakamori, Y. (2002). Systems thinking on knowledge and its management: systems methodology for knowledge management. Journal of knowledge management. 6(1), 7-17. doi:10.1108/13673270210417646.

Jackson, M. C. (2007). Systems approaches to management. Springer Science & Business Media.

Clarke, S. (2012). Information systems strategic management: an integrated approach. Routledge.

Godin, B. (2009). National innovation system: The system approach in historical perspective. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 34(4), 476-501. doi:10.1177/0162243908329187.

Kunc, M. (Ed.). (2017). System dynamics: soft and hard operational research. Springer.

Ross, A. M., Rhodes, D. H., & Hastings, D. E. (2008). Defining changeability: Reconciling flexibility, adaptability, scalability, modifiability, and robustness for maintaining system lifecycle value. Systems Engineering, 11(3), 246-262.

Bastholm, C., & Henning, A. (2014). The use of three perspectives to make energy implementation studies more culturally informed. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 4(1). doi:10.1186/2192-0567-4-3.

Krzakiewicz, K., & Cyfert, S. (2014). The strategic dimension of the dynamic capabilities of enterprises. Management, 18(2), 7-18.

Krzakiewicz, K., & Cyfert, S. (2017). Dynamic capabilities in strategic choice processes within organisations. Management, 21(1), 7-19.

Stieglitz, N., Knudsen, T., & Becker, M. C. (2015). Adaptation and inertia in dynamic environments. Strategic Management Journal, 37(9), 1854–1864. doi:10.1002/smj.2433.

Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1984). Structural Inertia and Organizational Change. American Sociological Review, 49(2), 149. doi:10.2307/2095567.

Zhang, C. M., & Greve, H. R. (2016). Delayed Adoption of Rules: A Relational Theory of Firm Exposure and State Cooptation. Journal of Management, 44(8), 3336–3363. doi:10.1177/0149206316673719.

Pérez-Nordtvedt, L., Khavul, S., Harrison, D. A., & McGee, J. E. (2013). Adaptation to Temporal Shocks: Influences of Strategic Interpretation and Spatial Distance. Journal of Management Studies, 51(6), 869–897. doi:10.1111/joms.12050.

Canato, A., Ravasi, D., & Phillips, N. (2013). Coerced Practice Implementation in Cases of Low Cultural Fit: Cultural Change and Practice Adaptation During the Implementation of Six Sigma at 3M. Academy of Management Journal, 56(6), 1724–1753. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.0093.

Magnusson, P., Westjohn, S. A., Semenov, A. V., Randrianasolo, A. A., & Zdravkovic, S. (2013). The Role of Cultural Intelligence in Marketing Adaptation and Export Performance. Journal of International Marketing, 21(4), 44–61. doi:10.1509/jim.13.0055.

Eakin, H. C., & Patt, A. (2011). Are adaptation studies effective, and what can enhance their practical impact? Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2(2), 141–153. doi:10.1002/wcc.100.

Seroka-Stolka, O., Krawczyk-Sokołowska, I., & Grabowska, M. (2016). Environmental management models. Science. Business. Society, 1(1), 49-52.

Andries, P. and Debackere, K. (2006). Adaptation in new technology‐based ventures: insights at the company level. International Journal of Management Reviews, 8: 91–112.

Andries, P., & Debackere, K. (2007). Adaptation and performance in new businesses: Understanding the moderating effects of independence and industry. Small business economics, 29(1-2), 81-99.

Rutherfor, T., Parker, P., & Koshiba, T. (2010). Global, Local, or Hybrid?: Evidence of Adaptation among Japanese Automobile Plants in Japan, the United States and Canada. Environments: a journal of interdisciplinary studies, 29(3).

Saebi, T., Lien, L., & Foss, N. J. (2017). What Drives Business Model Adaptation? The Impact of Opportunities, Threats and Strategic Orientation. Long Range Planning, 50(5), 567–581. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2016.06.006.

Garbara W. (1969), Proces przystosowawczy przedsiębiorstwa do środowiska, PWE.

Chakravarthy, B. S. (1982). Adaptation: A promising metaphor for strategic management. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 35-44.

Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process McGraw-Hill. New York.

Ogunmokun, G. O., & Li, L. Y. (1999). Globalization versus adaptation strategy in international marketing: a study of exporting companies in the people’s republic of China. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 4(2), 23-38.

Chakravarthy, B. S. (1982). Adaptation: A Promising Metaphor for Strategic Management. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 35–44. doi:10.5465/amr.1982.4285438.

Satapathy, S., Patel, S.K., Biswas, A. et al. (2012). Interpretive structural modeling for E-electricity utility service. Serv Bus 6, 349–367 doi:10.1007/s11628-012-0139-9.

Lange, S., Pohl, J., & Santarius, T. (2020). Digitalization and energy consumption. Does ICT reduce energy demand? Ecological Economics, 176, 106760. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106760.

Naranjo-Gil, D., & Hartmann, F. (2007). Management accounting systems, top management team heterogeneity and strategic change. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 32(7-8), 735-756. doi:10.1016/j.aos.2006.08.003.

Center for Creative leadership (2013), Adapting to Organizational Change, Greensboro, N.C.: CCL Press.

McCardle, J. G., Rousseau, M. B., & Krumwiede, D. (2019). The effects of strategic alignment and competitive priorities on operational performance: The role of cultural context. Operations Management Research, 12(1-2), 4-18.

Borowski P. F. (2020) Zonal and Nodal Models of energy market in European Union, Energies, 13(16), 4182; doi:10.3390/en13164182

Kreitner R., Management, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006.

Zakrzewska-Bielawska, A. (2018). The Relationship between Managers’ Network Awareness and the Relational Strategic Orientation of their Firms: Findings from Interviews with Polish Managers. Sustainability, 10(8), 2691. doi:10.3390/su10082691.

Leonard, A., & Grobler, A. F. (2006). Exploring challenges to transformational leadership communication about employment equity. Journal of Communication Management, 10(4), 390–406. doi:10.1108/13632540610714827.

Dettmer, S. L., Pagliara, S., Misiunas, K., & Keyser, U. F. (2014). Anisotropic diffusion of spherical particles in closely confining microchannels. Physical Review E, 89(6). doi:10.1103/physreve.89.062305.

Hatum, A., & Pettigrew, A. M. (2006). Determinants of Organizational Flexibility: A Study in an Emerging Economy. British Journal of Management, 17(2), 115–137. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00469.x.

Scott, W. R., & Davis, G. F. (2015). Organizations and organizing: Rational, natural and open systems perspectives. Routledge.

Manolova, T. S., Eunni, R. V., & Gyoshev, B. S. (2007). Institutional Environments for Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Emerging Economies in Eastern Europe. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(1), 203–218. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00222.x

Sánchez, A., Lago, A., Ferràs, X., & Ribera, J. (2011). Innovation Management Practices, Strategic Adaptation, and Business Results: Evidence from the Electronics Industry. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 6(2), 14–39. doi:10.4067/s0718-27242011000200002.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/HIJ-2020-01-02-01


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Piotr F. Borowski